Abstract:Année de publication : 1999
The purpose of these lecture notes is to describe the gravitational lens effects in different astrophysical contexts. These notes are voluntarily focused on the fundamental mechanisms and the basic concepts that are useful to describe these effects. The observational consequences are presented in more details in accompanying notes by Y. Mellier. The content of these notes is the following. In the first section describe of the basic mechanisms of gravitational lenses, techniques and approximations that are usually employed. The second section is devoted to the case of a very simple deflector, a point-like mass distribution. This corresponds to microlensing events in which the deflectors are compact objects of a fraction of a solar mass that may populate the halo of our Galaxy. The last two sections are devoted to cosmological applications. After a presentation of the geometrical quantities that are specific to cosmology, I will present the various phenomena that can be observed in this context. Finally I describe the weak lensing regime. This is a rapidly developing area that should eventually allow us to map the mass distribution in the Universe.