Abstract:Année de publication : 1996
In this PhD thesis, we deal with high energy Deep Inelastic Scattering in Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). \noindent In this work, two main topics are emphazided: The first one deals with dynamics based on perturbative renormalization group, and on perturbative Regge approaches. We discuss the applicability of these predictions, the possibility of distinguishing them in the HERA experiments, and their unification. We prove that the perturbative Regge dynamic can be successfuly applied to describe the HERA data. Different observables are proposed for distinguishing these two approaches. We show that these two predictions can be unified in a system of equations. In the second one, unitarization and saturation problems in high energy QCD are discussed. In the multiregge approach, equivalent to the integrable one-dimensional XXX Heisenberg spin chain, we develop methods in order to solve this system, based on the Fonctional Bethe Ansatz. In the dipole model context, we propose a new formulation of unitarity and saturation effects, using Wilson loops.