Abstract:Année de publication : 2005
This preprint is the introduction of my habilitation thesis for Paris7 university. It is a sumary of a collection of works on the 2 matrix model. In an introduction, 3 different and unequivalent definitions of matrix models are given (convergent model, model with fixed filling fractions on contours, and formal model). Then, a sumary of properties of differential systems satisfied by biorthogonal polynomials, in particular spectral duality and Riemann-Hilbert problem. Then, a section on loop equations and algebraic geometry formulation of the large N expansion. Then, a conjecture for the asymptotics of biorthogonal polynomials.